Prostatitis: causes, symptoms and signs, diagnosis, treatment

Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland. It is one of the most common diseases in men. Men over 30 are mainly affected. If left untreated, the disease progresses rapidly and leads to serious complications - infertility, impotence and cancer.

Most often, prostatitis manifests as painful urination, purulent and bloody discharge in the urine, and sexual dysfunction.

Normal prostate of a healthy man and inflammation of the prostate gland with prostatitis

The prostate is the organ that produces sperm and regulates urination. It is located below the bladder. It consists of three sections. During ejaculation, the prostate begins to contract, pushing the seminal fluid through the urethra. The gland is involved in limiting urinary incontinence, erection formation and sperm production.

Prostate juice contains a large amount of proteins, fats, enzymes and even some vitamins. The juice dilutes the seminal fluid, thus promoting sperm viability. The prostate is an active organ. It depends on the hormonal levels and itself participates in the formation of sex hormones.


It is difficult to determine the exact cause that triggered the development of prostatitis in a particular person. Most likely, it will be a complex of factors that, to one degree or another, led to the problem.

Let's consider the causes and factors that can contribute to the development of prostatitis:

  • Hypothermia and stress. The body's defenses decrease, which contributes to the appearance of inflammatory processes.
  • Hormonal imbalances. The level of sex hormones affects the activity of the prostate.
  • Sexually transmitted infections and urinary tract infections.
  • Various disorders of mechanisms in the body: urinary disorders, congestion in the pelvis. A sedentary lifestyle and tight underwear interfere with blood circulation in the pelvis. And problems with urination contribute to irritation of the tissue of the gland and cause prostatitis. Constipation can also be considered a predisposing factor.
  • Prolonged abstinence from intercourse, cessation of intercourse, or artificial prolongation of intercourse. This leads to enlargement of the gland and its inflammation.
  • Poor diet and alcohol abuse.

Infection in the prostate gland can occur in 4 ways:

  1. Descending - enters with urine flow.
  2. Ascending - rises along the urethra.
  3. Lymphogenic - along with the flow of lymph.
  4. Hematogenous - along with blood flow.

Symptoms and signs of prostatitis

Symptoms of prostatitis can vary. Depending on the nature of the course, acute and chronic prostatitis are distinguished.

Common signs of prostatitis include the following:

  • problems with urination - it is frequent, intermittent and difficult.
  • worsening erection;
  • burning sensation in the groin.
  • Urine is cloudy and contains fibers.
  • Orgasm is not bright.
  • increased fatigue;
  • reduced power;
  • depression, anxiety.

Acute prostatitis usually begins with an increase in body temperature to 39-40 degrees. The prostate gland swells, causing problems with urination. It is difficult and accompanied by pain.

During the exacerbation of prostatitis, the patient experiences pain in the perineum, as well as in the rectum, groin and sacrum.

Acute prostatitis can be catarrhal, follicular and parenchymal. Features of acute prostatitis:

  • Acute follicular prostatitis is characterized by weak stream pressure during urination. It is accompanied by severe pain, which may radiate to the anus area, particularly intensifying during defecation. A slight increase in temperature is possible.
  • Acute parenchymal prostatitis is characterized by sudden, throbbing pain in the perineal area. Poisoning of the body is observed, the temperature can reach 40 degrees. It is often accompanied by urinary retention.
  • Catarrhal acute prostatitis causes pain in the perineum, frequency and pain during urination.

Chronic prostatitis can develop from an acute form, but more often it immediately develops into a chronic form. The symptoms are erased, without clear signs and manifestations.

Symptoms and signs caused by chronic prostatitis:

  • decreased erection and libido.
  • decreased flow pressure during urination.
  • cramps and pain when urinating.
  • pain in the perineum, anus, sacrum.

Since the signs of chronic prostatitis are not clearly expressed, the patient often does not pay attention to the symptoms for a long time, which worsens its development and can cause complications.

Diagnosis of prostatitis

Medicine does not stand still and diagnosing prostatitis is not difficult. After collecting the history, the doctor can prescribe various diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis of prostatitis.

  • Rectal palpation of the prostate to diagnose prostatitis. It will reveal pain and increased size and these are characteristic signs of the inflammatory process in it, and during palpation the secretion of the prostate gland is released, which is sent for analysis.
  • Ultrasound examination.
  • Microscopic examination of prostate secretion.
  • Bacteriological examination of urine.
  • A smear of mucus and glandular secretions for infection.
  • Analysis of a swab from the urethra to identify sexually transmitted infections that could cause prostatitis.
  • Blood test to determine sex hormones.
At the first signs of prostatitis, you should consult a urologist to confirm the diagnosis.

These diagnostic measures help not only to confirm the diagnosis, since the symptoms are generally quite intense, but also to identify the cause of the disease.

Treatment of prostatitis

Currently, there are many treatment options for prostatitis. These include traditional and folk medicine methods. Traditional medicine can serve as a supplement to basic treatment. Self-treatment of prostatitis is dangerous, as this can lead to complications.

Doctors always resort to the traditional, medicinal method of treating prostatitis. This helps to relieve swelling, severe inflammation and normalize the function of the prostate gland.

A complex of various methods is usually prescribed:

  • rectal suppositories. Reduce pain and relieve inflammation.
  • injections;
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • instillation - the drug is injected directly into the prostate.
  • microenemas;
  • tablet medications. Most often, antibacterial drugs.
  • alpha-blockers.

The set of therapeutic measures is selected individually, depending on the degree of the disease, the manifestation of symptoms and the expected therapeutic effect for the patient.

If a bacterial cause of prostatitis is identified, then broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed that can destroy many strains of bacteria. They can be in the form of suppositories and in the form of tablets and in the form of injections.

Painkillers are used to relieve pain.

Alpha-blockers - help to relax the muscles of the urethra, which is a consequence of prostatitis. To relieve tension in the perineal area, various muscle relaxants are used.

A necessary step would be to improve blood circulation to relieve congestion and get vitamins.

Various physical therapy procedures and prostate massage are mandatory to treat prostatitis. Prostate massage is used for all forms and stages of disease development, improves blood circulation and compresses secretions with a pathogenic environment in the urethra.

Some scientists have become skeptical about this method of treating prostatitis, arguing that the pathogenic environment further penetrates the genitourinary system and contributes to the inflammation of other organs. Experiments are currently being conducted, this view has not been disproved or clinically proven, so massage is an integral method of treating prostatitis.

Traditional treatment at home

Traditional medicine is often used to treat prostatitis at home. If chronic prostatitis is diagnosed, then additional treatment with folk remedies will be very useful. It will not be superfluous in case of an acute manifestation of prostatitis, however, treatment only at home is unacceptable.

Among the popular methods, the following can be called quite effective:

  • Treatment of prostatitis with pumpkin seeds. Pumpkin seeds contain a large amount of zinc, which is essential for men, regardless of whether they have prostatitis.
  • Treatment of prostatitis with parsley - helps relieve inflammation and normalize sexual function. It contains a large amount of vitamins.
  • Treatment of prostatitis with hemlock and felandine infusions. This method should be used with caution as these herbs are poisonous and strict adherence to the dosage and dosage regimen is essential.
  • Treatment of prostatitis with wormwood. It is used to relieve inflammation and remove purulent infection.
  • Treatment of prostatitis with garlic, dill, hazelnuts, chestnuts, propolis, herbs, etc.

Most of these methods are aimed at relieving inflammatory processes and normalizing sexual function. A large number of different vitamins saturate the body, which plays a role in preventing exacerbations of prostatitis.

Consequences of prostatitis

If you refuse and if treatment for prostatitis is not started in time, there is a high chance that you will develop serious complications. Among the complications:

  • infertility;
  • inability;
  • BPH?
  • prostate cancer and more.

If treatment is refused, the infection will further penetrate into the nearby tissues. Other prostate diseases may also develop, including stones and cysts.

With prostatitis, the level of sex hormones decreases, which leads to a decrease in sexual desire (libido). Erectile dysfunction begins and premature ejaculation may occur. Impotence is possible.

Prostatitis also leads to infertility. This problem is particularly common in those patients who have developed chronic prostatitis. This complication is seen in half of these patients.

Hardening of the prostate may develop. In this case, the gland partially or completely stops working. This problem is accompanied by severe pain, sexual dysfunction and problems with urination.

Prostate adenoma and prostate cancer are the most dangerous complications of prostatitis.

The problems and complications that prostatitis leads to, in one way or another, affect a man's sex life. This leads to psychological problems, stress and depression.

It is important to watch the signs carefully to recognize chronic prostatitis early.

Prevention of prostatitis

Prevention of exacerbations aims at health monitoring and early detection of problems. Since in most cases prostatitis is a consequence of diseases of the genitourinary system that are not treated, special attention should be paid to the treatment of such diseases.

Prostatitis is considered a disease that is easier to prevent than to cure.

Of the preventive methods, the most important are:

  • Athletic activities. They serve to improve blood circulation in the pelvis, prevent congestion and strengthen the pelvic muscles.
  • Regular sex life. Medicines for the artificial prolongation of intercourse, cessation of intercourse and suppression of ejaculation are undesirable.
  • Refusal of fornication. Violent sex life leads to sexually transmitted infections.
  • Proper, healthy diet.
  • Stop alcohol.
  • Strengthening the body's defenses, avoiding hypothermia.
  • Minimize stress.

Prostatitis has a low rate of self-treatment or home treatment. Therefore, at the first signs, you should immediately contact a urologist to prescribe adequate treatment. You should also carefully monitor the signs that indicate chronic prostatitis and consult a doctor in time.