Sometimes men experience such an unpleasant disease as bacterial prostatitis. In order to start treatment on time, it is important to know what signs can be used to diagnose the disease and what diagnostics and treatment will be needed.
Bacterial prostatitis is an infectious disease of the prostate gland. Symptoms of the disease include pain in the perineum, fever, intoxication of the body and other signs. Such a condition may require urgent hospitalization, as it may pose a threat to the patient's health and life.
Forms of bacterial prostatitis
Depending on the course and the symptoms that occur, bacterial prostatitis is divided into two forms - acute and chronic.
The acute form manifests itself unexpectedly and is accompanied by various unpleasant symptoms. The acute form of bacterial prostatitis requires immediate medical attention. This pathological process is caused by Escherichia coli, staphylococci, enterobacteriaceae.
Acute prostatitis is easily diagnosed using laboratory tests. Severe symptoms and clinical picture allow an accurate diagnosis. Treat this form of prostatitis in a complex way using drugs and physiotherapy.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis has a pathogenic pathogen that can be identified using laboratory tests and studies. The main pathogens are gonococci, chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma. The inflammatory process can also be caused by tuberculosis bacteria or fungi of the genus Candida, if the man has an HIV infection.
Types of bacterial prostatitis
Bacterial prostatitis is classified according to the type of pathogen:
- tuberculosis (Koch's bacillus).
- gonorrhea (gonococci);
- fungal (various types of fungi).
- chlamydia (chlamydia);
- viral (causative agents herpes, human papillomavirus, influenza).
- mixed (several different infections).
It is possible to determine exactly what the causative agent was only in laboratory conditions, since the symptoms are the same for everyone.
Causes and risk factors
Bacteria enter the prostate gland, causing acute or chronic prostatitis. Sexually transmitted diseases can also cause this disease. In some cases, the cause cannot be determined.
Etiological factorsBacterial prostatitis is considered:
- fecal enterococcus;
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Possiblemicrobiological reasonsprostatitis is:
- staphylococci (saprophytic, golden, epidermal).
- genital mycoplasma.
- chlamydia trachomatis;
TOrisk factorsInfection of the prostate gland with the subsequent development of the inflammatory process in the form of one or another form of bacterial prostatitis is:
- endoprostatic reflux (urinary reflux into the ducts of the prostate gland during urination).
- pelvic injury;
- unprotected anal sex;
- urinary tract infections?
- having an internal urethral catheter or intermittent bladder catheterization;
- transurethral diagnostic and therapeutic interventions;
- HIV AIDS;
- previous prostate biopsy.
Symptoms of bacterial prostatitis
Usually, with bacterial prostatitis, the symptoms are so severe that it is difficult to ignore them. Signs of the disease include:
- high body temperature (in the anus it is usually higher than in the armpits).
- fever and chills;
- difficult and painful urination, especially at night.
- possible development of constipation due to enlargement of the prostate.
- lower body pain (lower back, perineum, lower abdomen).
- general intoxication of the body.
- secretion from the urethra and blood into the semen.
Stages of bacterial prostatitis
The clinical picture of bacterial prostatitis is manifested depending on the stage of the disease and the degree of involvement of prostate tissue in the inflammatory process. Share:
- Primary or bluetongue prostatitis.It is characterized by inflammation of the prostate walls. It is quite possible to be treated with antibiotics in 10 days.
- Secondary or follicular.It is characterized by the formation of abscesses in the glandular tissue. Accompanied by high fever. This form is also treated effectively with antibacterial drugs.
- Tertiary or parenchymal.The pathological process at this stage extends to the entire organ - the prostate increases in size, swells and changes shape. If you do not receive timely treatment, then the tertiary stage can develop into chronic prostatitis.
Possible complications and consequences for men
Consequences and complications of bacterial prostatitis include:
- cystitis (inflammation of the seminal vesicles) - manifested by pain in the groin, premature ejaculation, painful erection.
- colicolitis (inflammation of the seminal vesicle) - differs in various symptoms - burning and tickling of the posterior urethra, painful sensations during orgasm, blood in the semen.
- breach of power.
- prostate sclerosis.
- prostate cyst;
- prostate abscess.
- stones in the prostate gland.
Chronic pelvic pain syndrome is one of the most serious consequences of chronic prostatitis.
Asymptomatic inflammation is the mildest form in the absence of any complaints. This type of prostatitis is diagnosed with the development of complications from reproductive function.
Is bacterial prostatitis dangerous for women?
Prostatitis in women does not occur, but its serious consequences are common. If a man is affected by bacterial prostatitis, it is simply irresponsible to say that a woman is not at risk: chlamydia, ureaplasma, hair follicles, mycoplasma, gonococcus, gardnerella and other infections he receives from a partner pose a serious risk to a woman and lead todiseases.
Which doctor treats?
Urologistis considered the main specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of pathological conditions of the urogenital system.
Andrologist.Although andrology belongs to a fairly new branch of medicine, experts in this field are gradually taking their place in the treatment of diseases of the male urogenital system. The advantage of this doctor is his close focus. Unlike the urologist who treats diseases of the male and female urogenital system, the andrologist specializes exclusively in male problems.
Diagnosis of bacterial prostatitis
If bacterial prostatitis is suspected, various tests are performed, including:
- scratches and swabs for infection.
- cultures for flora and antibiotic susceptibility;
- a general blood test helps to detect the inflammatory process, when there is an increase in the number of leukocytes, an increase in ESR.
- spermogram, which examines a reduction in the number of sperm, a violation of their motility.
- three-glass urine sample (study inflammatory changes in urine).
- general urinalysis;
- analysis of prostate secretion.
- uroflowmetry - observation of the daily amount of urine.
The doctor will be able to assess how much the prostate is enlarged with a digital examination of the rectum. To clarify the diagnosis, your doctor may refer you for an ultrasound scan.
Treatment of bacterial prostatitis
As a treatment for bacterial prostatitis, drugs, physiotherapy, folk remedies and in severe cases, surgery are prescribed.
Medical treatment of prostatitis is performed using different groups of drugs. These may be antibiotics to neutralize the pathogen. However, they do not always help, as the prostate gland is characterized by poor absorption of antibiotics from the group of protected penicillins, fluoroquinolones.
The course of treatment is usually 10-14 days and must be completed without failure, since if bacterial prostatitis is not treated, it will reappear. Vitamins and medications are also prescribed to boost the immune system.
The doctor recommends surgery for prostatitis if no effect has been achieved in treating a patient with medication, physiotherapy or alternative therapies.
Surgery involves the following procedures:
- Transurethral resection of the prostate.The inner part of the instrument is removed. Surgery is the most commonly used and best endoscopic treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
To perform this intervention, the patient receives a series of tests, including blood and urine tests. The operation is performed under spinal anesthesia, but general anesthesia can also be used. There are no scars after the operation. Among the disadvantages is the painful urination in the first days after the procedure.
- Laser surgery.The laser destroys the diseased tissue. At the same time, the size of the prostate is reduced and the vessels are "sealed" and do not bleed. The operation is performed without incisions and the postoperative period is only three days. Prior to the intervention, blood and urine tests are performed, as well as an ultrasound of the urinary system and, as prescribed by the doctor, a prostate biopsy is performed.
This method is not effective if the prostate volume is large.
- Open prostatectomy.The operation is performed in cases where the prostate is very enlarged, in the presence of complications and in case of bladder damage.
The surgeon makes an incision either in the lower abdomen or between the scrotum and the anus. Either part of the prostate is removed or it is completely.
Before the operation, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and cytoscopy are performed, as well as blood and urine tests and prostate-specific antigen test.
One of the advantages of the operation is its effectiveness in the treatment of the prostate and related problems. And from the disadvantages - a long postoperative recovery period (more than a month), as well as problems with erectile function.
- Transurethral incision of the prostate gland.The doctor does not remove the prostate tissue, but only makes an incision to relieve pressure on the urethra, thus facilitating urination. Blood and urine tests are performed before the operation, as well as an ultrasound of the urinary system.
Advantages of the procedure - the symptoms of prostatitis are relieved without the risk of retrograde ejaculation, no long-term recovery is required. Of the shortcomings - prostatitis still needs to be treated.
- Drain the prostate abscess.The doctor opens the abscess through the perineum or rectum, dissects the skin and subcutaneous tissue and inserts a drain into the cavity with pus for removal.
Before the operation, a proctologist is consulted, blood and urine tests are taken.
The benefits of surgery include the absence of the risk of losing sexual function. The downside is that the abscess may not be completely removed and the bacteria can spread throughout the body.
Prostatitis surgery in men is usually the last resort for chronic bacterial prostatitis associated with complications of any kind.
In the complex treatment of patients diagnosed with prostatitis, natural methods of influence are of great importance. As a result of physiotherapy procedures, the following are improved:
- blood flow?
- lymphatic drainage, which helps to eliminate the decomposition products of microorganisms.
- blood and lymph circulation, due to which inflammatory infiltrates are resolved.
- outflow of blood and lymph, which helps reduce congestion in the pelvis.
- activity of cell membranes, which promotes the penetration of active drugs into the cell.
Physiotherapy for bacterial prostatitis includes the following methods:
- Electrophoresis.Effect on the body with ions, which helps relieve inflammation and eliminate pain.
- Laser physiotherapy.The laser helps relieve perineal pain and improves blood flow to the pelvic organs. It kills bacteria and removes waste from harmful organisms.
- Magnetotherapy.During this procedure, tissue permeability is improved and the effectiveness of drug treatment is significantly increased. In addition, with the help of magnetotherapy, hemodynamics and congestion stop.
Exercise for bacterial prostatitis
Exercise for chronic prostatitis causes contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, which guarantees a difference in intra-abdominal pressure. This promotes blood flow to the prostate. Exercise stimulates the nervous system, makes the adrenal glands work and removes the residual effects of inflammatory diseases on the prostate.
You can do the following exercises at home:
- The man sits on a rubber ball and rolls from left to right, slightly spring-loaded. Helps strengthen pelvic floor and oblique muscles.
- Kegel exercises. For 5-10 seconds, stretch your buttocks as much as possible and then relax your muscles. This exercise is performed 20-50 times.
- Lying on your back, bend your knees and rest your heels on the floor. Slowly raise your pelvis keeping your upper back level on the floor. When the basin is at the top, you should freeze for 15 seconds and then return to its original position. The number of repetitions is 10-15 times.
To achieve the result, the exercises are done daily and are also supplemented with prostate massage, which can be performed both independently and with the help of massage therapists.
Prostate self-massage is performed as follows:
- Drink a liter of water one hour before the procedure to fill the bladder.
- Clean the intestines with an enema based on potassium permanganate solution or chamomile infusion. The crotch must be rinsed.
- Hands should be washed thoroughly and nails cut short.
- You need to put a glove or a condom on the finger that will be used for the massage.
- The elastic surface of the protective layer is lubricated with Vaseline, grease or baby cream.
- Lie down in a comfortable position and place your finger on the anus at a depth of 5 cm.
- On the front wall, you can feel the prostate gland and start stimulating it with light strokes from the sides to the center.
- In hard areas, the pressure increases gradually and in soft areas, it decreases.
- In the final stage, the caressing movements are made downwards along the central victim.
- Gently pull your finger from the anus.
During the massage, 3-5 drops of fluid (prostate juice) should be released. Immediately after the massage, you should go to the toilet and empty your bladder.
With prostatitis, it is essential to reduce the use of alcohol and cigarettes as much as possible. Doctors also recommend excluding from the diet:
- Fatty foods, especially meat, as fat is a source of "bad" cholesterol, which disrupts blood circulation and adversely affects the prostate.
- energy and synthetic drinks.
- spicy and smoky.
It is recommended to eat boiled and steamed foods, lots of vegetables and herbs.
Pumpkin seeds.Pumpkin seeds are an old remedy for prostatitis. They contain a lot of zinc, which the male body needs. You should eat 30 seeds daily before meals.
Hazelnut branches.Boil many hazelnut sprigs with leaves in water for 20 minutes, let it boil until the broth turns reddish-brown. For treatment, a weekly course is enough.
Aspen bark.Aspen bark should be collected at the beginning of the sap flow period before the buds bloom. This is about the second half of April. Dry the crust in the oven, take 100 g, grind and put in a half liter jar. Pour 200 grams of vodka so that the rind is completely covered. Close the jar and put it in a dark place for 2 weeks. Filter after 2 weeks. Take 1 teaspoon in three lessons of three weeks with a break of 10 days.
Prognosis for bacterial prostatitis
The prognosis for prostatitis of bacterial origin depends on the stage and type of the disease. The duration of the disease also affects the prognosis - the longer the inflammation persists, the more it is needed to treat the complications of prostatitis.
In acute prostatitis, the prognosis is favorable. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a recurrent form, even when conservative treatment is prescribed. With long-term treatment of the chronic form, changes in strength may occur.
Prevention of bacterial prostatitis can be divided into primary and secondary.
Primary prevention of prostatitis:
- healthy lifestyle;
- good nutrition?
- doing sports.
Preventive measures at home are important - performing exercises that activate blood flow to problem organs and improve muscle tone.
Men should also study Kegel exercises. They were developed for postpartum rehabilitation in women, but are used to train a man's anal muscles and rectum.
Exercises are useful: bike, birch, bridge, candles. They train the pelvic muscles. It is recommended to do swings on the legs, exercises that hold the breath and take a contrast shower.
Secondary prevention of prostatitis:
- regular examination by a urologist, regardless of the manifestations.
- within a year of treatment, undergo quarterly examinations, later - once every six months.
For secondary prevention, rectal suppositories are used. They act through the rectum. Usually, these drugs have few contraindications. Also, biologically active drugs are prescribed to prevent recurrence of bacterial prostatitis.
The sooner prostatitis is detected, the easier it is to treat. Therefore, do not neglect regular visits to the doctor. After the diagnosis, the doctor will select the appropriate medication and prescribe a course of treatment. If the disease progresses, taking medication early will quickly relieve the symptoms and help you stay active and functional.